What is Diazepam: How to use, Side Effects, Dosage

What is Diazepam: How to use, Side Effects, Dosage

What is Diazepam

Diazepam is used to cure alcohol withdrawal symptoms, anxiety disorders, or muscle spasms. It is a benzodiazepine. It affects chemicals in the brain that might be unbalanced in people who have anxiety. It is sometimes being used with other drugs to treat seizures, either.

Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative chemically designated as 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5- phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a colorless crystalline compound, that is insoluble in water.

Diazepam Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution intended for intravenous or intramuscular administration. Each milliliter (mL) contains 5 mg diazepam; 40% propylene glycol; 10% alcohol; 5% sodium benzoate and benzoic acid added as buffers; and 1.5% benzyl alcohol added as a preservative. pH 6.6 (6.2 to 6.9). Note: Solution may appear colorless to light yellow.

Diazepam is an oral drug used to treat anxiety. It belongs to the family of benzodiazepine, the same family, which includes:

Alprazolam (Xanax)

Clonazepam (clonopin)

Laurazapam (Ativan)

Fluorazepam (Dalmane)


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How to use Diazepam

Diazepam might be habit-forming. Misuse of habit-forming drug could cause addiction, death or overdose. Diazepam should be used for only a short time. In any case, do not use this drug for longer than 4 months except while you have your doctor's permission. While using this medicine, you may need frequent blood tests at your doctor's office in order to make sure you are healthy.

Measure liquid drug with the dosing syringe provided for you, or with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, provided for you, make sure you take it from your pharmacists.

Don't forget, selling or giving this drug to somebody is against the law.

3-Take the medicine in your mouth or without food, as directed by your doctor. If you use this form of liquid, carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device / spoon. Do not use a spoon because you may not have a proper dose.

If you are using a concentrated solution, use a catheter and mix the dose with a small amount of liquid or soft material (such as potatoes, puddings). Remove all mixture quickly. Do not save the mixture for future use.

Dosage of Diazepam

The information about doses that are below, are for adults (First sentence is the use of Diazepam, and the second one is the dosage of it).

Symptomatic Relief in Acute Alcohol Withdrawal__10 mg, 3 or 4 times during the first 24 hours, reducing to 5 mg, 3 or 4 times daily as needed.

Management of Anxiety Disorders and Relief of Symptoms of Anxiety Depending upon severity of symptoms__2 mg to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times daily.

Adjunctively in Convulsive Disorders__2 mg to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times daily

Adjunctively for Relief of Skeletal Muscle Spasm__2 mg to 10 mg, 3 or 4 times daily.

Geriatric Patients, or in the presence of debilitating disease__2 mg to 2.5 mg, 1 or 2 times daily initially; increase gradually as needed and tolerated.

PEDIATRIC PATIENTS:

Because of varied responses to CNS-acting drugs, initiate therapy with lowest dose and increase as required. Not for use in pediatric patients under 6 months__1 mg to 2.5 mg, 3 or 4 times daily initially; increase gradually as needed and tolerated

The dose is based on the medical situation, age, and response to treatment. Do not increase your dose or prescribe it more or more than your drug. Your condition will not improve faster and the risk of your side effects increases. Stop medication right when the medicine works.

Symptoms of overdose

Excessive consumption of benzodiazepines usually occurs through central nervous system depression from sleepiness to waist. In mild cases, symptoms include drowsiness, confusion and anesthetics. In more serious cases, possible symptoms include ataxia, decreased reflux, hypotension, hypertension, respiratory depression, coma (rarely) and death (very low). Excessive consumption of benzodiazepines in combination with other CNS diseases (including alcohol) may be harmful and should be monitored.

Diazepam

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Side effects of Diazepam

Make sure to call your doctor as soon as possible if you have :( these effects are copied from this source, by priority)

weak or shallow breathing; severe drowsiness, feeling like you might pass out; depressed mood, thoughts of suicide or hurting yourself; confusion, hallucinations; anxiety, panic attacks, trouble sleeping; hyperactivity, agitation, aggression, hostility; unusual risk-taking behavior; or new or worsening seizures.

Accidental falls are common in elderly patients who use benzodiazepines. The sedative effects of diazepam may last longer in older adults. Be careful to avoid falling or accidental injury while you are taking this medicine.

The common diazepam side effects may include:(by priority)

drowsiness; tired feeling; muscle weakness; or loss of coordination.

A person who is taking care of you should seek emergency medical attention if you have slow breathing with long pauses, blue colored lips, or if it is hard for you to wake up.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur, either.so make sure you get your doctor's advice.

Side effects that most commonly occurred were, fatigue, muscle weakness, ataxia and drowsiness.

The below effects have also been reported: (by priority)

Central Nervous System: confusion, depression, dysarthria, headache, slurred speech, tremor, vertigo.

Gastrointestinal System: constipation, nausea, gastrointestinal disturbances.

Special Senses: blurred vision, diplopia, dizziness.

Cardiovascular System: hypotension.

Psychiatric and Paradoxical Reactions: stimulation, restlessness, acute hyper excited states, anxiety, agitation, aggressiveness, irritability, rage, hallucinations, psychoses, delusions, increased muscle spasticity, insomnia, sleep disturbances, and nightmares. Inappropriate behavior and other adverse behavioral effects have been reported when using benzodiazepines. Should these occur, use of the drug should be discontinued. They are more likely to occur in children and in the elderly.

Urogenital System: incontinence, changes in libido, urinary retention.

Skin and Appendages: skin reactions.

Laboratories: elevated transaminases and alkaline phosphatase.

Other: changes in salivation, including dry mouth, hypersalivation.

Antegrade amnesia may occur using therapeutic dosages, the risk gets more at higher dosages.

Minor changes in EEG patterns, usually low-voltage fast activity, have been observed in patients during and after diazepam therapy and are of no known significance.

Because of isolated reports of neutropenia and jaundice, periodic blood counts and liver function tests are advisable during long-term cure.

Tell your doctor as soon as possible if you have any serious side effects, like: mental/mood changes (such as memory problems, agitation, hallucinations, confusion, restlessness, depression), trouble speaking, trouble walking, muscle weakness, shaking (tremors), trouble urinating, yellowing eyes/skin, signs of infection (such as sore throat that doesn't go away, fever, chills).

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug which is rare. However, get medical help quickly if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, like: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

Call an ambulance right away if you have any very serious side effects, like: slow/shallow breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor.

Drugs that may interact with Diazepam

Other drugs may interact with diazepam, including prescription and over-the-counter drugs, herbal products, and vitamins. Consult your doctor about all your current drugs and any medicine you have started or stopped using.

Consult to your doctor before taking a sleeping pill, opioid pain drug, prescription cough medicine, a muscle relaxer, or medicine for anxiety, depression, or seizures.

Taking diazepam with other medicines that would make you sleepy or slow your breathing can cause dangerous side effects or death.

If diazepam should be associated with other factors affecting the operation, special attention should be paid to the drugs that are specifically used in combination with the effects of diazepam, such as phento-azine, antipsychotics, anxiolytics / sedative, hypnotics, anticoagulants, contraceptives, Anesthetics, sedation antihistamines, drugs, barbiturates, MAO inhibitors and other antidepressants.

Alcohol

Simultaneous consumption of alcohol due to increased sedative effect is not recommended.

Antacids

The use of antioxidants is 30% lower when injected with diazepam. However, there is no effect on absorption. Lower concentrations appear to be on average 20 to 25 minutes longer in the presence of anti-acids, due to decreased absorption, with the time needed to reach the maximum concentration. However, this difference was not statistically significant.

Compounds Which Inhibit Certain Hepatic Enzymes

A potentially interactive interaction between diazepam and compounds that inhibits some of the liver enzymes (especially cytochrome P450 3A and 2C19). The data indicate that these compounds affect the pharmacokinetics of diazepam and may increase sedation and prolonged duration. At the present time, this reaction occurs with Somidine, Ketoconazole, Fluvoxamine, Fluoxetine and Omeprazole.

Phenytoin

There have also been reports that the metabolic elimination of phenytoin is decreased by diazepam.

Some of the products that may be related to this drug are: Clozapine, Fluvoxamine, Ehlestat, Sodium oxybate.

Drug interactions may change the behavior of medications or increase the risk of serious side effects. This document does not cover all possible drug interactions. Include a list of all the products you use (including prescription / nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Start, stop or change the dosage of medicines without the confirmation of your doctor.

For whom Diazepam might not be safe

For people with kidney disease: Diazepam is excreted in your kidneys. If you have kidney problems, most medicines might remain in your body, and will put you at risk of side effects. Your doctor may adjust your dose and get closer to you.

For people with acute angina: Talk to your doctor if you have glaucoma. Diazepam may be used in people with open angle glaucoma, but must not be used in people with acute acute glaucoma.

For people with a history of drug use or alcohol abuse: Let your doctor know if you have problems with taking drugs or alcohol. The risk of addiction, dependence, or tolerance to diazepam may increase.

For people with liver disease: Diazepam is processed by your liver. If you have liver problems, most of this drug may remain in your body, and may put you at risk of side effects. Your doctor may adjust your dose of diazepam and get closer to you. If you have liver disease, you should not take this medicine.

For people with mental health issues: Let your doctor know if you have a history of severe depression or if you have ever thought or attempted suicide. Diazepam may make these problems worse. Your doctor will get closer to you.

For people with myasthenia gravis: Myasthenia gravis is a disease that causes extreme muscle weakness and tiredness. If you have myasthenia gravis, you shouldn’t use diazepam.

For people with respiratory problems: Let your doctor know if you have respiratory problems. Diazepam affects the central nervous system and may breathe or stop your breathing. Your doctor may start you at a lower dose and get closer to you. If your breathing problems are severe or if you have sleep apnea, your doctor may choose other drugs for you.

Can you use Diazepam while pregnancy?

There may also be abnormal dangers associated with the use of benzodiazepines during pregnancy. An increased risk of congenital anomalies and other growth disorders associated with the use of benzodiazepines during pregnancy is also suggested. Infant anemia, respiratory and nutritional problems, and hypothermia have been reported in children born to mothers who received benzodiazepines at the end of pregnancy. In addition, children born to mothers taking regular benzodiazepines at the end of pregnancy may be at risk for withdrawal symptoms during the postpartum period.

Warnings of Diazepam

Since diazepam is a central nervous system depression, patients should be advised to use alcohol and other CNS depression drugs during treatment with diazepam.

Diazepam is not recommended for the treatment of psychiatric patients and should not be used instead of proper treatment.

As with other factors that have anticonvulsant activity, when diazepam is used as a supplement to treat seizure disorders, the likelihood of an increase in the frequency and / or severity of major seizures may be the need to increase the standard dose of anticonvulsant medication. Sudden withdrawal of diazepam in such cases may be associated with a temporary increase in the frequency and / or severity of seizure.

Diazepam

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