What is Clonazepam: How to use, Dosage, Side Effects

What is Clonazepam: How to use, Dosage, Side Effects

What is Clonazepam

Chemically, clonazepam is 5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4- benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has a molecular weight of 315.72diazepines.

Clonazepam is used to prevent and control seizures. This medication is known as an anticonvulsant or antiepileptic drug. It is also used to treat panic attacks. Clonazepam works by calming your brain and nerves. It belongs to a class of drugs called benzoKlonopin, a benzodiazepine, is available as scored tablets with a K-shaped perforation containing 0.5 mg of clonazepam and unscored tablets with a K-shaped perforation containing 1 mg or 2 mg of clonazepam. Each tablet also contains lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and corn starch, with the following colorants: 0.5 mg—FD&C Yellow No. 6 Lake; 1 mg—FD&C Blue No. 1 Lake and FD&C Blue No. 2 Lake.

Klonopin is indicated for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, as defined in DSM-V. Panic disorder is characterized by the occurrence of unexpected panic attacks and associated concern about having additional attacks, worry about the implications or consequences of the attacks, and/or a significant change in behavior related to the attacks. (Read full information about Klonopin: What is Klnonopin?)

Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine. It affects chemicals in the brain that may be unbalanced. Clonazepam is also a seizure medicine, also called an anti-epileptic drug.

Clonazepam is used to treat certain seizure disorders (including absence seizures or Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) in adults and children.

Clonazepam is an anti-anxiety medication in the benzodiazepine family, the same family that includes diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), alprazolam (Xanax), flurazepam (Dalmane), and others. Clonazepam and other benzodiazepines act by enhancing the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. GABA is a neurotransmitter (a chemical that nerve cells use to communicate with each other) that inhibits brain activity. It is believed that excessive activity in the brain may lead to anxiety or other psychiatric disorders. Clonazepam is primarily used for treating panic disorder and preventing certain types of seizures.

The FDA approved clonazepam in June 1975.

Clonazepam is also used to treat panic disorder (including agoraphobia) in adults.

Please if you have any questions about Clonazepam, you can ask us by commenting below this text, we'll answer you as soon as possible.

How to use Clonazepam

Read the Medication Guide provided by your pharmacist before you start taking clonazepam and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor, usually 2 or 3 times daily. Swallow the tablet whole, with a full glass of water.

Take clonazepam exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label. Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results. Do not use this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

Misuse of habit-forming medicine can cause overdose, addiction, or death. Selling or giving away this medicine is against the law.

Clonazepam should be used only for a short time. Do not take this medication for longer than 9 weeks without your doctor's advice.

If you use this medicine long-term, you may need frequent medical tests.

Dosage of Clonazepam

Adults

The initial dose for adults with seizure disorders should not exceed 1.5 mg per day divided into three doses. Dosage might be increased in increments of 0.5 to 1 mg every 3 days until seizures are adequately controlled or until side effects preclude any further increase. Maintenance dosage should be individualized for each patient depending upon response. Maximum recommended daily dose is 20 mg.

Pediatric Patients

Klonopin is administered orally. In order to minimize drowsiness, the initial dose for infants and children (up to 10 years of age or 30 kg of body weight) should be between 0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg/day but not to exceed 0.05 mg/kg/day given in two or three divided doses. Dosage should be increased by no more than 0.25 to 0.5 mg every third day until a daily maintenance dose of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg of body weight has been reached, unless seizures are controlled or side effects preclude further increase. Whenever possible, the daily dose should get divided into three equal doses. If doses are not equally divided, the largest dose should be given before retiring.

Geriatric Patients

There is no clinical trial experience with Klonopin in seizure disorder patients 65 years of age and older. In general, elderly patients should be started on low doses of Klonopin and observed closely (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use).

Usual Adult Dose of Clonazepam for Seizure Prophylaxis:

1.5 mg orally per day divided into 3 doses; this may be increased in increments of 0.5 mg to 1 mg every 3 days until seizures are adequately controlled or until side effects preclude any further increase.

Maximum dose: 20 mg orally per day

Symptoms of overdose

Symptoms of clonazepam overdosage, like those produced by other CNS depressants, include somnolence, confusion, coma, and diminished reflexes.

How to manage overdose?

Treatment includes monitoring of respiration, pulse and blood pressure, general supportive measures and immediate gastric lavage. Hypotension might be combated by the use of levarterenol or metaraminol. Intravenous fluids must be administered and an adequate airway maintained. Dialysis is of no known value. Flumazenil, a known benzodiazepine-receptor antagonist, is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines and may be used in situations when an overdose with a benzodiazepine is known or suspected. Prior to the administration of flumazenil, necessary measures should be instituted to secure airway, ventilation and intravenous access. Flumazenil is intended as an adjunct to, not as a substitute for, proper management of benzodiazepine overdose. Patients treated with flumazenil should be monitored for resedation, respiratory depression and other residual benzodiazepine effects for an appropriate period after treatment. The prescriber should be aware of a risk of seizure in association with flumazenil treatment, particularly in long-term benzodiazepine users and in cyclic antidepressant overdose. The complete flumazenil package insert, including CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS, should be consulted prior Overdose symptoms may include extreme drowsiness, confusion, muscle weakness, fainting, or coma. to use.

Clonazepam

Please if you have any questions about Clonazepam, you can ask us by commenting below this text, we'll answer you as soon as possible.

Side effects of Clonazepam

Drowsiness, dizziness, tiredness, loss of coordination, or increased saliva production may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

A small number of people who take anticonvulsants for any situation (such as seizures, bipolar disorder, pain) may experience depression, suicidal thoughts/attempts, or other mental/mood problems. Tell your doctor right away if you or your family/caregiver notice any unusual changes in your mood, thoughts, or behavior, including: confusion, memory problems, signs of depression, suicidal thoughts/attempts, thoughts about harming yourself.

Get medical help as soon as possible if you have any very serious side effects, like: slow/shallow breathing.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

The most frequently occurring side effects of Klonopin are preferable to CNS depression. Experience in treatment of seizures has shown that drowsiness has occurred in approximately 50% of patients and ataxia in approximately 30%. In some cases, these may diminish with time; behavior problems have been noted in approximately 25% of patients. Others, categorized by system, including those identified during post approval use of Klonopin are:

Cardiovascular: Palpitations

Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, coated tongue, constipation, diarrhea, dry mouth, encopresis, gastritis, increased appetite, nausea, sore gums

Dermatologic: Hair loss, hirsutism, skin rash, ankle and facial edema

Hematopoietic: Anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia

Hepatic: Hepatomegaly, transient elevations of serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase

Genitourinary: Dysuria, enuresis, nocturia, urinary retention

Musculoskeletal: Muscle weakness, pains

Miscellaneous: Dehydration, general deterioration, fever, lymphadenopathy, weight loss or gain

Neurologic: Abnormal eye movements, aphonia, choreiform movements, coma, diplopia dysarthria, dysdiadochokinesis, ‘‘glassy-eyed’’ appearance, headache, hemiparesis, hypotonia, nystagmus, respiratory depression, slurred speech, tremor, vertigo

Psychiatric: Confusion, depression, amnesia, hysteria, increased libido, insomnia, psychosis (the behavior effects are more likely to occur in patients with a history of psychiatric disturbances).

The following paradoxical reactions have been observed: irritability, aggression, agitation, nervousness, hostility, anxiety, sleep disturbances, nightmares, abnormal dreams, hallucinations.

Respiratory: Chest congestion, rhinorrhea, shortness of breath, hypersecretion in upper respiratory passages

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Drugs that may interact with Clonazepam

Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not include all these bad mixtures. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's confirmation.

Some products that may interact with this drug include: orlistat, sodium oxybate.

The risk of serious side effects (such as slow/shallow breathing, severe drowsiness/dizziness) might be increased if this medication is taken with other products that may also cause drowsiness or breathing problems. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking other products such as opioid pain or cough relievers (such as codeine, hydrocodone), alcohol, marijuana, drugs for sleep or anxiety (such as alprazolam, lorazepam, zolpidem), muscle relaxants (such as carisoprodol, cyclobenzaprine), or antihistamines (such as cetirizine, diphenhydramine).

Check the labels on all your medicines (such as allergy or cough-and-cold products) because they may contain ingredients that cause drowsiness. Ask your pharmacist about using those products in a safe way

Clonazepam does not appear to alter the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine or phenobarbital. Clonazepam has the potential to influence concentrations of phenytoin. Monitoring of phenytoin concentration is recommended when clonazepam is co-administrated with phenytoin. The effect of clonazepam on the metabolism of other drugs has not been searched before.

Effect of Other Drugs On the Pharmacokinetics of Clonazepam

Literature reports suggest that ranitidine, an agent that decreases stomach acidity, does not greatly alter clonazepam pharmacokinetics.

In a study in which the 2 mg clonazepam orally disintegrating tablet was administered with and without propantheline (an anticholinergic agent with multiple effects on the GI tract) to healthy volunteers, the AUC of clonazepam was 10% lower and the Cmax of clonazepam was 20% lower when the orally disintegrating tablet was given with propantheline compared to when it was given alone.

The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors sertraline (weak CYP3A4 inducer) and fluoxetine (CYP2D6 inhibitor), and the anti-epileptic drug felbamate (CYP2C19 inhibitor and CYP3A4 inducer) do not affect the pharmacokinetics of clonazepam. Cytochrome P- 450 inducers, such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and phenobarbital induce clonazepam metabolism, causing an approximately 38% decrease in plasma clonazepam levels. Although clinical studies have not been performed, based on the involvement of the cytochrome P-450 3A family in clonazepam metabolism, inhibitors of this enzyme system, notably oral antifungal agents (e.g., fluconazole), should be used carefully in patients achieving clonazepam because they may impair the metabolism of clonazepam leading to exaggerated concentrations and effects.

Clonazepam, like all other benzodiazepines, accentuates the effects of other drugs that slow the brain's processes, such as alcohol, barbiturates, and narcotics and leads to increased sedation.

For whom Clonazepam might not be safe

For children, the long-term effects on physical and mental/behavioral development are uncertain and may not be seen until after many years. Therefore, discuss the risks and benefits of treatment with clonazepam with your doctor.

Older adults may be more sensitive to the effects of this drug, especially drowsiness and confusion. These side effects can increase the risk of falling.

Using tClonazepam while pregnancy

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. It may harm an unborn baby. However, since untreated seizures are a serious condition that can harm both a pregnant woman and her unborn baby, do not stop taking this medication unless directed by your doctor. If you are planning pregnancy, become pregnant, or think you may be pregnant, immediately talk to your doctor about the benefits and risks of using this medication during pregnancy.

Warnings of Clonazepam

Before using this medication, tell your doctor your medical history, especially of: a certain type of eye problem (narrow angle glaucoma), a certain blood disorder (porphyria), liver disease, kidney disease, lung/breathing problems, mental/mood problems (such as depression, thoughts of suicide), personal or family history of a substance use disorder (such as overuse of or addiction to drugs/alcohol).

This drug might make you dizzy or drowsy. Alcohol or marijuana can make you more dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs alertness until you can do it safely. Avoid alcoholic beverages. Talk to your doctor if you are using marijuana.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use.

This drug passes into breast milk and may have undesirable effects on a nursing inStore at room temperature away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company. Information last revised June 2018. Copyright(c) 2018 First Databank, Inc.fant. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Tablets should be kept at room temperature, between 15 C and 30 C (59 F and 86 F).

Clonazepam

Please if you have any questions about Clonazepam, you can ask us by commenting below this text, we'll answer you as soon as possible.

Add comment

Your message is required.