What is Bupropin: How to Use, Dosage, Side Effects

What is Bupropin: How to Use, Dosage, Side Effects

What is Bupropin

Bupropion is an antidepressant drug used to cure major depressive disorder and seasonal affective disorder. The Zyban brand of bupropion is used to help people stop smoking by reducing cravings and other withdrawal effects.

Bupropion may also be used for purposes not mentioned in this medication guide.

WELLBUTRIN (bupropion hydrochloride), an antidepressant of the aminoketone class, is chemically unrelated to tricyclic, tetracyclic, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, or other known antidepressant agents. Its structure nearly resembles that of diethylpropion; it is related to phenylethylamines. It is designated as (±)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl) amino]-1- propanone hydrochloride. The molecular weight is 276.2. The molecular formula is C13H18ClNO•HCl. Bupropion hydrochloride powder is white, crystalline, and highly soluble in water. It has a bitter taste and produces the sensation of local anesthesia on the oral mucosa.

WELLBUTRIN is supplied for oral administration as 75-mg (yellow-gold) and 100-mg (red) film-coated tablets. Each tablet contains the labeled amount of bupropion hydrochloride and the inactive ingredients: 75-mg tablet – D&C Yellow No. 10 Lake, FD&C Yellow No. 6 Lake, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, talc, and titanium dioxide; 100-mg tablet – FD&C Red No. 40 Lake, FD&C Yellow No. 6 Lake, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, talc, and titanium dioxide.

This medication is used to treat depression. It may also be used to prevent seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a type of depression that happens each year at the same time (for example, during winter). This drug can improve your mood and feelings of well-being. It may work by recovering the balance of certain natural substances (dopamine, norepinephrine) in the brain.

Bupropion is an antidepressant medication that affects chemicals within the brain that nerves use to send messages to each other. These chemical messengers are called neurotransmitters. Many experts believe that depression is caused by an imbalance among the amounts of neurotransmitters that are released. Nerves, in a process referred to as reuptake, may recycle released neurotransmitters. Bupropion works by inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine; an action that results in more dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine to transmit messages to other nerves. Bupropion is unique and unlike other antidepressants in that its major effect is on dopamine, an effect that is not shared by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or SSRIs (for example, paroxetine [Paxil], fluoxetine [Prozac], sertraline [Zoloft]) or the tricyclic antidepressants or TCAs (for example, amitriptyline [Elavil, Endep], imipramine [Tofranil], desipramine [Norpramin]). The FDA approved bupropion in December 1985.

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How to use Bupropin

Do not crush, chew, or break an extended-release tablet. Swallow it whole.

Take bupropion exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label. Do not take this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than suggested. Too much of this medicine can increase your risk of a seizure.

You should not change your dose or stop using bupropion suddenly, unless you have a seizure while taking this medicine. Stopping suddenly can cause unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.

Ask your doctor how to safely stop using bupropion.

If you take Zyban to help you stop smoking, you may keep on smoking for about 1 week after you start the medicine. Set a date to quit smoking during the second week of treatment. Talk to your doctor if you are having trouble quitting after you have used Zyban for at least 7 weeks.

Your doctor may prescribe nicotine patches or gum to help support your smoking cessation treatment. Read all guides and safety information for the nicotine product. Do not smoke at any time if you are using a nicotine product along with Zyban. Too much nicotine can make important issues.

You may have nicotine withdrawal symptoms when you stop smoking, including: increased appetite, trouble sleeping, weight gain, trouble concentrating, slower heart rate, having the urge to smoke, and feeling anxious, restless, depressed, angry, frustrated, or irritated. These symptoms may occur with or without using medication such as Zyban.

This medicine can cause you to have a false positive drug screening test. If you provide a urine sample for drug screening, tell the laboratory staff that you are taking bupropion.

Smoking cessation may also cause new or worsening mental health problems, such as depression.

keep it at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Dosage of Bupropin

Initial dose: 100 mg orally twice a day

Maintenance dose: The dosage may be increased in 75 to 100 mg/day increments not more often than every 3 days up to the usual maintenance dose of 100 mg orally 3 times a day. The maximum dose is 450 mg/day, given in 4 divided doses; bupropion should be discontinued if there is not an adequate response to this dose. Single doses should not exceed 150 mg.

Bupropion comes as a tablet and a sustained-release or extended-release tablet to take by mouth. The regular tablet is usually used three times a day, with doses at least 6 hours apart, or four times a day, with doses at least 4 hours apart. The sustained-release tablet is usually taken twice a day, with doses at least 8 hours apart. The extended-release tablet is usually taken once daily in the morning; doses of the extended-release tablet should be taken at least 24 hours apart. When bupropion is used to treat seasonal affective disorder, it is usually taken once a day in the morning beginning in the early fall, continuing through the winter, and stopping in the early spring. Sometimes a lower dose of bupropion is taken for 2 weeks before the drug is stopped. Take bupropion with food if the medication upsets your stomach. If you have trouble falling asleep or staying asleep, do not take bupropion too close to bedtime. Take bupropion at around the same time(s) every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand.

Forgetting a dose

Skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Always allow the full scheduled amount of time to pass between doses of bupropion. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

Symptoms of overdose

Overdose symptoms may include muscle stiffness, hallucinations, fast or uneven heartbeat, shallow breathing, or fainting.

Bupropin

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Side effects of Bupropin

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction to bupropion: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Common bupropion side effects may include:

dry mouth, stuffy nose;

nausea, constipation;

sleep problems (insomnia);

feeling anxious;

dizziness; or

joint pain.

drowsiness

anxiety

excitement

difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep

dry mouth

dizziness

headache

nausea

vomiting

stomach pain

uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body

loss of appetite

weight loss

constipation

excessive sweating

ringing in the ears

changes in your sense of taste

frequent urination

sore throat

Drugs that may interact with Bupropin

Bupropion should be used cautiously in patients receiving drugs that reduce the threshold for seizures. Such drugs include prochlorperazine chlorpromazine, and other antipsychotic medications of the phenothiazine class. Additionally, persons who are withdrawing from benzodiazepines [for example, diazepam, alprazolam (Xanax)] are at increased risk for seizures.

Carbamazepine may reduce the effect of bupropion by reducing the blood concentration of bupropion. Monamine oxidase inhibitors should not be combined with bupropion because of the risk of severe reactions. At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAOI and initiation of bupropion. Bupropion may affect the action of warfarin.

Ritonavir may increase the breakdown and elimination of bupropion. In some studies ritonavir reduced the concentration of bupropion in the body by 22% to 66%.

For whom Bupropin might not be safe

UsingThere are no adequate studies of bupropion in pregnant women. In one study, there was no difference between bupropion and other antidepressants in the occurrence of birth defects. Bupropion should only be used in pregnancy if the benefit outweighs the potential risk.

Bupropion is secreted in breast milk. 

Warnings of Bupropin

Tell all the things about treatment to your doctor.

Before having any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are taking bupropion.

Do not let anyone else take your drug. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about changing your prescription.

If you are taking the extended-release tablet, you may notice something that looks like a tablet in your stool. This is just the empty tablet shell and does not mean that you did not get your complete dose of medication.

Patients with MDD, both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment.

Bupropin

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