What is Metformin: Dosage, How to use, Side Effects

What is Metformin: Dosage, How to use, Side Effects

What is Metformin?

Metformin is an oral Drug that bringing down blood glucose (sugar) by effecting the body's susceptibility to insulin and is used for Curing type 2 diabetes. Insulin is a hormone generatin by the pancreas that controls glucose levels in blood by decreasing the amount of glucose made by the liver and by increasing the removal of glucose from the blood by muscle and fat tissues. As a result, insulin causes blood glucose levels fall. Diabetes caused by a reduce in production of insulin that causes increased production of glucose by the liver, and reduced uptake (and effects) of insulin on fat and muscle tissues. Metformin acts by increasing the Susceptibility of liver, muscle, fat, and other tissues to the uptake and effects of insulin. These actions lower the level of sugar in the blood.

Please if you have any questions about Metformin, you can ask us by commenting below this text, we'll answer you as soon as possible.

About Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes (also known as adult-onset ornon-insulin-dependent diabetes) is the most common form of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is acondition in which the body does not processinsulin properly, resulting in elevated blood sugar (blood glucose). Insulin is a hormone that is produced in the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed more often in people who areoverweight or obese, and who are not physically active. Patients with diabetes should also note that a healthy weight improves cholesterol levels and overall health. Insulin resistance is a condition that is commonly seen in type 2 diabetes, where it becomes difficult for the body to use the insulin that is produced. Certain genesthat affect insulin production rather than insulinresistance are a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes. Family history of diabetes is a risk factor, and people of certain races or ethnicities are at higher risk. Abnormal glucose production by the liver can also lead to elevated blood sugar (glucose) levels.

How to use metformin?

Most people with type 2 diabetes begin treatment with metformin (Glucophage), a pill that helps your liver to lower your blood glucose levels.

Metformin makes your muscles better absorb insulin. This allows you to improve the glucose production process.

You will probably take medicine with food twice a day. This will reduce your chances of having diarrhea, a common side effect.

If you cannot achieve your blood glucose goals with metformin alone, your doctor may increase your dose or add another diabetic pill.

Metformin dosage

For curing type 2 diabetes in adults, metformin (immediate release) usually is begun at a dose of 500 mg twice a day or 850 mg once daily. The dose is gradually raised by 500 mg weekly or 850 mg every two weeks as tolerated and based on the reaction of the levels of glucose in the blood. The maximum daily dose is 2550 mg given in three divided doses.

For pediatric patients 10-16 years of age, the starting dose is 500 mg twice a day. The dose can be addition by 500 mg weekly up to a maximum dose of 2000 mg in divided doses.

Children older than 17 years of age may receive 500 mg of extended release tablets daily up to a maximum dose of 2000 mg daily. Extended release tablets are not approved for children younger than 17 years of age.

If relieved tablets are used, the initial dose is 500 or 1000 milligrams per day with daily food. The dose can be increased by 500 mg per week to a maximum dose of 2,000 mg, except for Fortamet (2500 mg Fortamet, once a day or two divided doses). Glumetza tablets (formulation 500-1000mg once a day (1000 to 2000mg) are given. Fortamet and Glumetza are formulation releases of metformin formulations. Metformin should be taken with meals.


Please if you have any questions about Metformin, you can ask us by commenting below this text, we'll answer you as soon as possible.

Side effects of metformin

The most common side effects with metformin are





diarrhea and

loss of appetite.

These symptoms happen in one out of every three sicks. These side effects may be severe sufficient to cause therapy to be stoped in one out of every 20 sicks. These side effects are related to the dose of the drug and may reduce if the dose is decreased.

A serious but rare side effect of metformin is lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis happens in one out of every 30,000 sicks and is fatal in 50% of cases. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are


trouble breathing,

abnormal heartbeats,

unusual muscle pain,

stomach discomfort,

light-headedness, and

feeling cold.

Metformin may also cause:

weakness or lack of energy

respiratory tract infections,

low levels of vitamin B-12,

low blood glucose (hyperglycemia)


indigestion, muscle pain,

heartburn, and


Patients at risk for lactic acidosis contain those with reduced function of the

kidneys or liver,

congestive heart failure,

severe acute illnesses, and


This list is not full of side effects and others may happen. Talk to your doctor about side effects.

Drugs that may interact with Metformin

Metformin has moderate interactions with at least 74 different drugs.

Ask your doctor before using ethanol together with metformin. Taking this combination may cause a condition called lactic acidosis. If any of these signs of lactic acidosis are present, refer to emergency medical help: weakness, increased sleepiness, slow heart rate, feeling cold, muscle aches, shortness of breath, stomach ache. Use alcohol cautiously. If your doctor prescribes these medications together, you may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safey take this combination. It is important to talk your doctor about all other drug, including vitamins and herbs. Do not use other drug before talking to your doctor

If your doctor has used your drug for diabetes, your doctor or druggist may be aware of any possible drug and may monitor you for them. Before checking with a doctor, healthcare provider or pharmacist, first, stop or change the dose.

Metformin while Pregnancy

There are no enough studies in pregnant women. Most specialized agree that insulin is the best treatment for pregnant women with diabetes.

Metformin is transmitted to breast milk and can therefore be transmitted to a breast-feeding infant. Nursing mothers should not use metformin.

Use in pregnancy may be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.

Not recommended when lactating as metformin enters breast milk.

Warnings of Metformin

May impair vitamin B12 or calciumintake/absorption; monitor B12 serumconcentrations periodically with long-term therapy.

Used for use in type 1 diabetics who are insensitive to inefficiency, are not intended for use

Withhold in patients with dehydration and/or prerenal azotemia.

Iodinated contrast imaging procedures.

Reevaluate eGFR 48 hr after the imaging procedure; restart metformin if renal function is stable.

Stop metformin at or before a iodized contrast imaging technique in patients with eGFR between 30-60 ml / 1.73 m 2 / min. In patients with a history of liver disease, alcohol or heart failure; or in patients who are injected into the arterial iodine concentration.

Use with caution in patients with congestive heart failure, fever, trauma, surgery, the elderly, renal impairment, or hepatic impairment.

Rare, but serious, lactic acidosis can occur due to accumulation.

Instruct patients to avoid heavy alcohol use.

Suspend therapy prior to any type of surgery.

It may be necessary to stop treatment with metformin and place insulin in the presence of stress (fever, trauma or infection).

Possible increased risk of cardiovascular (CV)mortality.

Ethanol may potentiate metformin's effect on lactate metabolism.

May cause ovulation in anovulatory and premenopausal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients.


Please if you have any questions about Metformin, you can ask us by commenting below this text, we'll answer you as soon as possible.

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